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Electrochemistry and Electric Grid > Grid Storage
A Novel Solid Oxide Flow Battery

Start Date: August 2011


Scott Barnett, Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University; Robert Kee, Robert Braun, Engineering Division, Colorado School of Mines

Annual Reports Publications
  • Wendel, C. H., and Braun,R.J., Design and techno-economic analysis of high efficiency reversible solid oxide cell systems for distributed energy storage, Energy (2015, submitted)
  • Wendel, C. H., Kazempoor, P., & Braun,R.J., A thermodynamic approach for selecting operating conditions in designing reversible solid oxide cell systems for electrical energy storage, Journal of Power Sources (2015, submitted).
  • Jensen, S. H., Graves, C., Mogensen, M., Wendel, C., Braun, R., Hughes, G. A., Gao ,Z. & Barnett, S. A. A Novel Method for Large-Scale Electricity Storage. Energy & Environmental Science (2015, submitted).
  • Wendel, C. H., Gao, Z., Barnett, S. A. & Braun, R. J. Modeling and experimental performance of an intermediate temperature reversible solid oxide cell for high30 efficiency, distributed-scale electrical energy storage. Journal of Power Sources 283, 329-342, doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.02.113 (2015).
  • Miller, E. C., Sherman, Q., Gao, Z., Voorhees, P. W. & Barnett, S. A. Stability of Infiltrated Nickel Anodes in Intermediate Temperature SOFCs in SOFC-XIV (ed S.C. Singhal) (ECS Transactions Glasgow, 2015).
  • Monti, A., Wendel, C.H., Santarelli, M., & Braun, R.J., Energy dense storage using intermediate temperature reversible solid oxide cells, ECS Conference on Electrochemical Energy Conversion & Storage in SOFC-XIV (ed S.C. Singhal) (ECS Transactions, Glasgow, Scotland 2015)
  • Hughes, G. A., Railsback, J. G., Yakal-Kremski, K. J., Butts, D. M. & Barnett, S. A. Degradation of (La0.8Sr0.2)0.98MnO3-╬┤ - Zr0.84Y0.16O2-╬│ Composite Electrodes During Reversing Current Operation. Faraday Discussions In press (2015).
  • Wendel, C.H., Kazempoor, P., Braun, R.J., "Novel electrochemical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions", Journal of Power Sources, 276 (2015) 133-144.
  • Gao, Z., Zenou, V., Kennouche, D., Marks, L. D. & Barnett, S. Characteristics of Solid Oxide Cells with Zirconia/Ceria Bi-Layer Electrolytes Fabricated Utilizing Reduced-Temperature Firing. J. Mater. Chem. A, doi:10.1039/c5ta01964h (2015).
  • Gao, Z. & Barnett, S. A. Effects of Reduced Firing Temperature on Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. J. Electrochem. Soc. In press (2014).
  • Gao, Z., Kennouche, D. & Barnett, S. A. Reduced-temperature firing of solid oxide fuel cells with zirconia/ceria bi-layer electrolytes. Journal of Power Sources 260, 259-263, doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.03.025 (2014).
  • Kazempoor, P., and Braun, R.J., "Model validation and performance analysis of regenerative solid oxide cells for energy storage applications: Reversible operation," Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy 39:5955-5971 (2014).
  • Kazempoor, P., and Braun, R.J., Model validation and performance analysis of regenerative solid oxide cells for energy storage: Electrolytic operation, Int J Hydrogen Energy (2014); 39:2669-84.
  • Kazempoor, P., and Braun, R.J.; "Performance Analysis of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells for Syngas Production," ECS Transactions 58(19): 43-53, (2014).
  • Kazempoor, P., Wendel, C.H., and Braun, R.J., "Pressurized Regenerative Solid Oxide Cells for Electrical Energy Storage," ECS Transactions, 58(37): 45-54, (2014).
  • Huet, S., C. Ducros, F. Sanchette, and G. Piet. "Fabrication of a solid oxide fuel cell with thin layers of solid dense electrolyte deposited by electron beam assisted vapour phase physical deposition on a porous electrode." J. Power Sources (Submitted 2013).
  • Hughes, G. A., K. Yakal-Kremski, and S. A. Barnett. "Life testing of LSM–YSZ composite electrodes under reversing-current operation." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 15, No. 40, 17257-17262 (2013) doi:10.1039/c3cp52973h.
  • "Miller, E. C., Gao, Z. & Barnett, S. A. Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with a Thin (La0.9Sr0.1)0.98(Ga0.8Mg0.2)O3-╬┤Electrolyte on a Sr0.8La0.2TiO3Support. Fuel Cells 13, 1060-1067, doi:10.1002/fuce.201300155 (2013)."
  • "Gao, Z. & Barnett, S. A. Reduced-Temperature Firing of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Electrochemical Synthesis of Fuels 2 58, 231-242, doi:Doi 10.1149/05802.0231ecst (2013)."
  • Zhan, Z., D. Han, T. Wu, X. Ye, S. Wang, T. Wen, S. Cho, and S. A. Barnett. "A solid oxide cell yielding high power density below 600 ° C." RSC Advances (2012).


  • Wendel, C.H., Kazempoor, P., and Braun, R.J., "Operating conditions and system considerations for a reversible solid oxide cell system for electrical energy storage," Proc. Of the 12th ASME Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference, ESFuelCell 2014, June 29-July2, Boston, MA, (2014).
  • S.A. Barnett, "Potential Performance of SOEC," Workshop on Electrolysis and CO2-recycling for production of green fuels, April 2013, Danish Technical University Energy Conversion
  • Arroyo-Currás, N. Use of Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM) in the Evaluation of Redox Couples for Flow Battery Applications, 2013 CEC Annual Workshop on Electrochemistry, Poster Session, February 9, 2013, Austin, TX.
  • Chang, J. Detection of Intermediate Sn(III) in Sn(II)/Sn(IV) Oxidation on Gold electrode Through Fast Scan Cyclic Voltammetry (FSCV) and Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM), 2013 CEC Annual Workshop on Electrochemistry, Poster Session, February 9, 2013, Austin, TX.
  • Bennett, B. Electrochemical Study of the Bromide/Bromine Reaction in Nitrobenzene, 2013 CEC Annual Workshop on Electrochemistry, Poster Session, February 9, 2013, Austin, TX.
  • S.A. Barnett, "High Efficiency Electrical Energy Storage Using Reversible Solid Oxide Cells," colloquium at Lehigh University, Chemical Engineering Dept., March 2012
  • S. A. Barnett, Z. Zhan, D. M. Bierschenk, "Reduced-Temperature Solid Oxide Cells For Efficient Energy Storage," 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Materials for Humantronics, Feb. 3, 2012, Yonsei University
Updated July 2015


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